Looking Back on America's First Female Astronauts

NASA Astronaut Group 8 class logo

NASA Astronaut Group 8 class logo – Credit: NASA

On January 16, 1978, NASA selected its first group of new astronauts since 1969. This new class of 35 astronaut candidates was named Astronaut Group 8, but colloquially referred to as the “TFNG: 35 New Guys”1 While there were 35 members of the class, for the first time they couldn’t all be referred to as “guys”. Astronaut Group 8 would produce many firsts in the way of diversity: the first African-American in space, the first Asian-American in space, and the first Jewish-American, among others. Today we highlight the six women of Astronaut Group 8: Shannon W. Lucid, Margaret Rhea Seddon, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Judith A. Resnik, Anna L. Fisher and Sally K. Ride. These would become America’s first female space explorers.

From left to right are Shannon W. Lucid, Margaret Rhea Seddon, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Judith A. Resnik, Anna L. Fisher, and Sally K. Ride. NASA selected all six women as their first female astronaut candidates in January 1978, allowing them to enroll in a training program that they completed in August 1979.

From left to right are Shannon W. Lucid, Margaret Rhea Seddon, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Judith A. Resnik, Anna L. Fisher, and Sally K. Ride. NASA selected all six women as their first female astronaut candidates in January 1978, allowing them to enroll in a training program that they completed in August 1979. – Credit: NASA

Shannon W. Lucid

Shannon Lucid in 1978

Shannon Lucid in 1978 – Source: NASA

Out of the six women of Astronaut Group 8, Shannon Lucid spent more time in space and flew on the most spaceflights. By the time she retired from NASA, she had flown to space on five separate flights and held a number of NASA spaceflight records as a result of her prolonged stay on the now-extinct Russian space station, Mir; Lucid was the only American woman that had the honor of serving upon Mir. In 1996, she became the first woman to receive a Congressional Space Medal of Honor which are awarded to astronauts “who in the performance of his duties has distinguished himself by exceptionally meritorious efforts and contributions to the welfare of the Nation and of mankind”. (Uhh, “his” and “himself”? Ahem!)  Of the six women in her class, Lucid was the only mother at the time of selection into the astronaut program (though, she wasn’t the first mother in space… we’ll get to that in a minute).

Lucid spent a total of 223 days, 2 hours, and  50 minutes in space during her career.

After her tenure as an astronaut, Lucid served as NASA’s Chief Scientist from February 2002 until September 2003. She also served as CAPCOM during numerous Space Shuttle and International Space Station crews. She retired from NASA in 2012.

Margaret Rhea Seddon

Margaret Rhea Seddon in 1978

Margaret Rhea Seddon in 1978 – Source: NASA

Margaret Rhea Seddon was the first medical doctor to travel to space. During her years as an astronaut, she flew on three separate missions. Her medical expertise was invaluable for the numerous experiments that she worked on during her missions in space, as well as the research she conducted on Earth. In 1981, Seddon married fellow Group 8 astronaut Robert L. Gibson and the two became the first active duty married astronauts.

During her three space flights, Seddon spent a total of 30 days, 2 hours, and 21 minutes in space. Her responsibilities during her 19 years at NASA included: helicopter search and rescue physician, serving on the NASA Life Sciences Advisory Committee and the NASA and International Bioethics Task Forces, and in-flight medical operations. While an active-duty astronaut, she continued to work part-time as an emergency room physician in various hospitals.

Seddon retired from NASA in 1997, remaining active in the medical community.

Kathryn D. Sullivan

Kathryn D. Sullivan

Kathryn D. Sullivan in 1990 – Source: NASA

Kathryn D. Sullivan made history in 1984 when she became the first American woman to conduct an EVA (extravehicular activity), spacewalking for 3-1/2 hours to demonstrate the feasibility of satellite refueling. This accomplishment came on her very first trip into space, during STS-41-G. In total, Sullivan visited space during three missions: STS-41-G, STS-31, and STS-45. STS-31 was an especially important mission, as they carried the Hubble Space Telescope into orbit, deploying it at an orbit altitude record at the time, of 612 kilometers (380 miles). Her work on STS-45, her final space voyage, included a number of research experiments as part of the Spacelab mission dedicated to the NASA ‘Mission to Planet Earth’. The results of that research provided a wealth of information about Earth’s climate and atmosphere.

During her three flights, she spent a total of 22 days, 4 hours, and 49 minutes in space.

In 2014, Sullivan was confirmed by the U.S. Senate to serve as the Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA Administrator.

Anna L. Fisher

Anna Lee Fisher in 1980

Anna Lee Fisher in 1980 – Credit: John Bryson

In 1984, Anna Lee Fisher became the first mother in space. You might not immediately realize the significance of this, but I think it’s an important first. In the 1980s women were still fighting to be considered equals among men in the workplace. Much more so than now, moms were generally expected to stay home and raise the children while the fathers worked. So here you have a mother that not only does everything a mother does, but she works hard, trains to become an astronaut, and travels to space. Cracking the glass ceiling? More like smashing through Earth’s atmosphere!

Fisher is also extremely educated: she earned a Bachelor of Science in Chemistry in 1971, a Doctor of Medicine in 1976, and also earned a Master of Science in Chemistry in 1987–all from UCLA.

During her single flight, she spent 7 days, 23 hours, and 45 minutes in space.

As of 2014, Fisher was listed as a management astronaut with NASA and was working on NASA’s next generation crewed space program, among other duties.

(As an aside, the image of Anna Fisher above is one of my all-time favorite space images. The look of wonder and courage in her eyes stimulates some of the same emotions I had as a child watching these people take their trips into the skies in their shuttles. It represents a moment in our collective history, in which were just beginning to establish ourselves in a world that was much bigger than we had ever known before.)

Sally K. Ride

Sally Ride in 1984

Sally Ride in 1984 – Source: NASA

Sally Kristen Ride made history on June 18, 1983, when she became the first American woman in space (Russia put the first two women into space: Valentina Tereshkova and Svetlana Savitskaya). On that mission, STS-7, she also became the first woman to operate the shuttle’s robotic arm and the first to use it to retrieve a satellite from orbit. She flew a second flight in 1984, STS-41-G, with fellow Group 8 member Kathryn Sullivan.

During her two missions, she spent a total of 14 days, 7 hours, and 46 minutes in space.

In an interview with USA Today:

 In elementary school, there (were) lots of girls who were interested in science, and that’s true today. For whatever reason, I didn’t succumb to the stereotype that science wasn’t for girls. I got encouragement from my parents. I never ran into a teacher or a counselor who told me that science was for boys. A lot of my friends did.

 

Following the Challenger disaster, Ride served as a member of the Presidential Commission that investigated the accident. After NASA, Ride founded Sally Ride Science, a non-profit organization with a mission to “inspire young people in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and to promote STEM literacy.”

Ride was always humble about it, but she was, and still is, a true inspiration to millions.

Ride passed away on July 23, 2012, while battling pancreatic cancer.

Judith A. Resnik

Judith Resnik in 1978

Judith Resnik in 1978 – Source: NASA

Not all of these stories have as happy of an ending as one would hope. On her second Shuttle mission, Judy Resnik was assigned to STS-51-L aboard Challenger. 73 seconds after lift-off, Challenger’s rocket boosters exploded and the orbiter broke apart. All seven members of the crew lost their lives.

Resnik earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Carnegie-Mellon University in 1970, and a Doctorate in Electrical Engineering from University of Maryland in 1977.

Resnik’s first flight (STS-41-D), in 1984, made her the second American female in space, and the first Jewish-American in space. That mission had the crew deploy three satellites into orbit, as well as deploy the OAST-1 solar array. The array, once unfolded, was 13 feet wide and 102 feet long–“it’s up, and it’s big!” she reported to mission control. When folded, it was a mere 7 inches deep. The array demonstrated the feasibility of large lightweight solar arrays in space. Her total time in space as a result of that mission was 6 days, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds.

Resnik was posthumously awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.

Judy Resnik aboard orbiter Discovery, during STS-41-D

Judy Resnik aboard orbiter Discovery, during STS-41-D – Source: NASA Spaceflight Forums

Legacy

NASA's first female astronauts

NASA’s first female astronauts  – From left to right: Seddon, Sullivan, Resnik, Ride, Fisher, Lucid- Source: NASA

As of May 2015, nearly 60 women have flown into space. Along with Russian cosmonauts Valentina Tereshkova and Svetlana Savitskaya, these are the women that demolished barriers and showed the world that anyone that had the drive and work ethic required could make it in any industry that they desired to be a part of.

  1. Inside the space program, TFNG was a play on an off-color military phrase.

Planetary Resources: From Sci-Fi to Reality

Image and text related to asteroid mining, from the book "11 Planets" by David A. Aguilar. Part of my kids' collection.

Image and text related to asteroid mining, from the children's educational book "11 Planets" by David A. Aguilar

Exciting (and historic!) news came to the world via the space-front yesterday. A major announcement was made by Bellevue, Washington-based, entrepreneurial start-up, Planetary Resources. Yesterday morning, at Seattle’s Museum of Flight, they unveiled their plans — plans which up until now had existed primarily in the realm of science fiction: they intend to commercially explore and mine asteroids robotically.

So who are Planetary Resources, and do they have the… well, planetary resources to pull off such a feat?

Planetary Resources emerged from the cocoon of an organization, Arkyd Astronautics, which was founded in late-2010 by Dr. Peter Diamandis (spaceflight entrepreneur, founder of the X Prize Foundation) and Eric Anderson (founder of the commercial spaceflight/space tourism corporation, Space Adventures). If not there at the start-up, Chris Lewicki (a former NASA Mars Phoenix Lander mission manager) quickly came on board as president and chief engineer. They began very quietly, offering employment for engineers and other professionals and presenting themselves as devoted to  developing “disruptive technologies for the commercial robotic exploration of space”.

Then there are the prominent billionaire investors and advisors, including according to their April 18 teaser press release:

Google’s Larry Page & Eric Schmidt, Ph.D.; film maker & explorer James Cameron; Chairman of Intentional Software Corporation and Microsoft’s former Chief Software Architect Charles Simonyi, Ph.D.; Founder of Sherpalo and Google Board of Directors founding member K. Ram Shriram; and Chairman of Hillwood and The Perot Group Ross Perot, Jr.

If there is a group of people with the potential, background, and resources to make this venture a reality, I think we’re looking at it.

So what’s the plan here; plop some robotic miners on an asteroid, bring home a lode of precious metals, and sell it for profit? Yes and no. They claim their primary purpose is based on their vision, not a return on investment. That said, the potential return on investment is huge, even if it takes one heck of an initial investment to get to that point. If that claimed motivation is truly the case, I have extremely high hopes for Planetary Resources. The greatest breakthroughs and advancements, those technological leaps that change our world, generally don’t emerge out of a profit-plan. They bloom from inspiration and a yearning to do big things, to follow one’s passions wherever they might take them, no matter the cost. This venture can afford to follow those dreams. And while they will face many challenges along the way, as long as they stay motivated by their vision I don’t foresee them limited into accomplishing it.

Here’s a quick run-down of their initial plan:

They will begin by launching and deploying a number of small space telescopes — already developed under the Arkyd name — that will find, observe, and characterize near-Earth asteroids (NEOs, Near Earth Objects). The first of these is slated to go up within the next 24 months. Once asteroid targets have been selected, probes will be sent to them to begin mining operations.

Interestingly, their first mining goal won’t be to see what precious metals they can extract; their first targeted material will be water and other materials that can be used as supplies in space operations (oxygen, nitrogen, etc.). When you consider the costs of launching supplies from Earth into space, it’s overwhelming. During the historic press conference, former NASA astronaut and Planetary Resources adviser, Tom Jones, pointed out that carrying a single liter of water to the International Space Station costs approximately $20,000 USD! With such tremendous shipping costs, there’s little difference in the cost of putting a kilogram of gold or a liter of water into space — virtually all of the cost is fuel to get into orbit. So with that idea, turning asteroids into supply depots would be extremely valuable, and drastically reduce the cost of space programs.

Planetary Resources logo.

This will also allow Planetary Resources, and other companies that might emerge between now and then, the opportunity to extract other natural resources to return to Earth. Asteroids hold the potential to make some of Earth’s rarest materials abundant, and acquiring them for use on Earth could rapidly transform our technology and infrastructure.

If you want to delve deeper into the hows and technical details of the project, you can check out the FAQ on Planetary Resources’s website and watch the archived webcast of their groundbreaking press conference.

Again, I feel highly inspired by all of this. I feel extremely lucky to live in a time when exciting things like this begin to grow legs (I hope things move quickly enough that I will live to see humans exist as a true space-faring species).  The challenges will be immense, and I don’t even want to consider the up-front economics involved, but I believe now is the time to take this step forward — and whatever Planetary Resources undertakes and no matter how far they go, we’re headed in the right direction.


F-1 Rocket Engine Recovery

They took rocket-grade kerosene and liquid oxygen, and turned it into 1.5 million pounds of thrust, 32 million horsepower, and made it possible to take the Apollo astronauts to the Moon. I’m talking about the Rocketdyne F-1 rocket engines used in the first stage of Saturn V — the only vehicle to take humans outside of low-Earth orbit.

Following launch, five F-1 engines would burn for about 2-and-one-half minutes, boosting the Saturn V and its payload to an altitude of nearly forty miles, and 55 miles downrange from Cape Kennedy. At that point, the first stage (S-1C) containing the F1 engines would separate from the rest of the Saturn V and fall back to Earth, crashing into the Atlantic Ocean where they would rest forever.

Separation of Apollo first stage from other two stages of the Saturn V.

Separation of the first (S-1C) stage containing the F-1 engines from the other two Saturn V stages, during Apollo 11.

(Image Credit: NASA)

At least, forever was how long we thought they would sit there….

Amazon.com founder, Jeff Bezos, recently announced that a “team of undersea pros” that he funded had found the most famous F-1 engines of all; the ones from Apollo 11 that launched humanity to the Moon, where the first humans would walk on another world. But finding them is just the start, Bezos Expeditions is planning on actually recovering one or more of the F-1s.

“We don’t know yet what condition these engines might be in – they hit the ocean at high velocity and have been in salt water for more than 40 years. On the other hand, they’re made of tough stuff, so we’ll see”, Bezos said in the announcement. He also pointed out that regardless of how long the engines have spent 14,000 feet below the surface of the Atlantic, they are still the sole property of NASA. He also stated that he had requested that NASA make available for display at the Museum of Flight in Seattle, Washington, the second F-1 his group manages to salvage (the first presumably would go to the Smithsonian).

NASA followed the announcement with a press release of their own, in which NASA Administrator Charles Bolden expressed his support for the project, and acknowledged the request to house a second (or the first, if the Smithsonian declines it) F-1 at Bezos’ requested facility.

“NASA does retain ownership of any artifacts recovered and would likely offer one of the Saturn V F-1 engines to the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum in Washington under long-standing arrangements with the institution as the holder of the national collection of aerospace artifacts.

“If the Smithsonian declines or if a second engine is recovered, we will work to ensure an engine or other artifacts are available for display at the Museum of Flight in Seattle, as Jeff requested in his correspondence with my office.”

As of yet, there hasn’t been an announced timeline, cost, or specific details released about the project; however, I personally suspect Bezos will have no problem pulling together the resources needed to tackle the feat.

Bezos ended the announcement with a quote that echoes my own heart when it comes to NASA’s ability to inspire:

NASA is one of the few institutions I know that can inspire five-year-olds. It sure inspired me, and with this endeavor, maybe we can inspire a few more youth to invent and explore.

Good luck, Bezos Industries. Thanks for taking the public treasure that NASA is and multiplying its inspiration for generations to come.


NASA's Shorty Award

Shorty Awards Logo

Last week, the ceremony for the 4th Annual Shorty Awards was held in New York City. The Short Awards, nicknamed Shorties “… honor the best of social media, recognizing the people and organizations producing real-time short form content across Twitter, Facebook, Tumblr, YouTube, Foursquare, and the rest of the social Web.”

Each year in January, the nomination period opens and people are urged to nominate social media accounts (people, agencies, groups, etc.) that they feel are particularly inspiring or important in a variety of different categories, such as Science, Travel, Art, Actresses, Government, and many more.

They’re like the Oscars or Emmy’s of the Social Media world.

I’m happy to report that in the category of Government, @NASA took this year’s Shorty.

“The Obama administration has placed a high priority on openness and on-line communications, and @NASA is honored to be recognized for its social media efforts with a Shorty Award,” said David Weaver, NASA’s associate administrator for communications. “We are inspired by the social media community and their passion for sharing our compelling story of reaching for new heights and keeping America the world leader in space exploration.”

While it is evident that the US Government has been making leaps and bounds in attempts to exist in an online world with the rest of us, I think NASA is being entirely too humble. And evidence of my claim comes from another Shorty Award:  Best Social Media Manager, awarded to Stephanie Schierholz, the social media manager for none other than NASA.

Not only has NASA set an example for how government can properly use social media, it has set an example for how the social media industry itself can properly use social media.

It is especially refreshing that, during a time in which the American political institution has relegated itself into a malignant mass of bemusement that is quickly making the case that its greatest efficiency is its ability to divide its populace, NASA still stands out as a bipartisan non-partisan example of what makes this country worth the effort one must muster to endure these very trying times. NASA continues to be one of the All-American beacons that inspires the world along with the nation that supports its existence.


Sunday Matinee – John Glenn Chats With ISS Astronauts

As part of the events recognizing the 50th anniversary of John Glenn’s (and the United States’) first orbital spaceflight, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden surprised Senator Glenn with a live video conference with current (Expedition 30) International Space Station Commander Dan Burbank, and Flight Engineers André Kuipers and Don Pettit.

There’s something poetic about watching the first American to orbit the Earth talk to the American’s that, fifty years after John Glenn’s historic flight, live in the Earth’s orbit.

All in all, it was an interesting conversation that’s definitely worth the time to watch.

Favorite Space Images of 2011

With so many wondrous space-related images being captured on a daily basis, it is difficult to single any out as “the best”. That said, there are those that just stick in your mind… the images that run through your head when you’re trying to go to sleep, that make you ask questions, that inspire you to spend hours doing research, and those that make your jaw drop to the floor. Here are a small handful of the ones that have done that to me this year.

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I hope you enjoyed these as I have, and I look forward to what 2012 has in store for us!


[Vide-whoa!]The Known Universe

This is an amazing animation that I’ve gone back to watch at least a dozen times over the past couple of years.

The Known Universe takes viewers from the Himalayas through our atmosphere and the inky black of space to the afterglow of the Big Bang. Every star, planet, and quasar seen in the film is possible because of the world’s most complete four-dimensional map of the universe, the Digital Universe Atlas that is maintained and updated by astrophysicists at the American Museum of Natural History. (via American Museum of Natural History on YouTube)

I recommend going back and watching this video anytime you need a little bit of perspective in your life. It makes you feel pretty small, don’t ya think?


Christmas Eve Earthrise

On Christmas Eve, 1968, one of the most iconic space images of all time was taken. The beautiful Earthrise image was taken by William Anders, aboard Apollo 8 — the first manned mission to the Moon (to orbit, not land).

Photo of Earth Rise from Apollo 8

(Click image for full-sized version / Source: NASA)

The words of Commander Frank Borman, as taken from the transcript of the mission, are quite fitting of what it must have felt like to see such a sight:

“Oh, my God! Look at that picture over there! Here’s the earth coming up. Wow, is that pretty!”