Looking Back on America's First Female Astronauts

NASA Astronaut Group 8 class logo

NASA Astronaut Group 8 class logo – Credit: NASA

On January 16, 1978, NASA selected its first group of new astronauts since 1969. This new class of 35 astronaut candidates was named Astronaut Group 8, but colloquially referred to as the “TFNG: 35 New Guys”1 While there were 35 members of the class, for the first time they couldn’t all be referred to as “guys”. Astronaut Group 8 would produce many firsts in the way of diversity: the first African-American in space, the first Asian-American in space, and the first Jewish-American, among others. Today we highlight the six women of Astronaut Group 8: Shannon W. Lucid, Margaret Rhea Seddon, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Judith A. Resnik, Anna L. Fisher and Sally K. Ride. These would become America’s first female space explorers.

From left to right are Shannon W. Lucid, Margaret Rhea Seddon, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Judith A. Resnik, Anna L. Fisher, and Sally K. Ride. NASA selected all six women as their first female astronaut candidates in January 1978, allowing them to enroll in a training program that they completed in August 1979.

From left to right are Shannon W. Lucid, Margaret Rhea Seddon, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Judith A. Resnik, Anna L. Fisher, and Sally K. Ride. NASA selected all six women as their first female astronaut candidates in January 1978, allowing them to enroll in a training program that they completed in August 1979. – Credit: NASA

Shannon W. Lucid

Shannon Lucid in 1978

Shannon Lucid in 1978 – Source: NASA

Out of the six women of Astronaut Group 8, Shannon Lucid spent more time in space and flew on the most spaceflights. By the time she retired from NASA, she had flown to space on five separate flights and held a number of NASA spaceflight records as a result of her prolonged stay on the now-extinct Russian space station, Mir; Lucid was the only American woman that had the honor of serving upon Mir. In 1996, she became the first woman to receive a Congressional Space Medal of Honor which are awarded to astronauts “who in the performance of his duties has distinguished himself by exceptionally meritorious efforts and contributions to the welfare of the Nation and of mankind”. (Uhh, “his” and “himself”? Ahem!)  Of the six women in her class, Lucid was the only mother at the time of selection into the astronaut program (though, she wasn’t the first mother in space… we’ll get to that in a minute).

Lucid spent a total of 223 days, 2 hours, and  50 minutes in space during her career.

After her tenure as an astronaut, Lucid served as NASA’s Chief Scientist from February 2002 until September 2003. She also served as CAPCOM during numerous Space Shuttle and International Space Station crews. She retired from NASA in 2012.

Margaret Rhea Seddon

Margaret Rhea Seddon in 1978

Margaret Rhea Seddon in 1978 – Source: NASA

Margaret Rhea Seddon was the first medical doctor to travel to space. During her years as an astronaut, she flew on three separate missions. Her medical expertise was invaluable for the numerous experiments that she worked on during her missions in space, as well as the research she conducted on Earth. In 1981, Seddon married fellow Group 8 astronaut Robert L. Gibson and the two became the first active duty married astronauts.

During her three space flights, Seddon spent a total of 30 days, 2 hours, and 21 minutes in space. Her responsibilities during her 19 years at NASA included: helicopter search and rescue physician, serving on the NASA Life Sciences Advisory Committee and the NASA and International Bioethics Task Forces, and in-flight medical operations. While an active-duty astronaut, she continued to work part-time as an emergency room physician in various hospitals.

Seddon retired from NASA in 1997, remaining active in the medical community.

Kathryn D. Sullivan

Kathryn D. Sullivan

Kathryn D. Sullivan in 1990 – Source: NASA

Kathryn D. Sullivan made history in 1984 when she became the first American woman to conduct an EVA (extravehicular activity), spacewalking for 3-1/2 hours to demonstrate the feasibility of satellite refueling. This accomplishment came on her very first trip into space, during STS-41-G. In total, Sullivan visited space during three missions: STS-41-G, STS-31, and STS-45. STS-31 was an especially important mission, as they carried the Hubble Space Telescope into orbit, deploying it at an orbit altitude record at the time, of 612 kilometers (380 miles). Her work on STS-45, her final space voyage, included a number of research experiments as part of the Spacelab mission dedicated to the NASA ‘Mission to Planet Earth’. The results of that research provided a wealth of information about Earth’s climate and atmosphere.

During her three flights, she spent a total of 22 days, 4 hours, and 49 minutes in space.

In 2014, Sullivan was confirmed by the U.S. Senate to serve as the Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA Administrator.

Anna L. Fisher

Anna Lee Fisher in 1980

Anna Lee Fisher in 1980 – Credit: John Bryson

In 1984, Anna Lee Fisher became the first mother in space. You might not immediately realize the significance of this, but I think it’s an important first. In the 1980s women were still fighting to be considered equals among men in the workplace. Much more so than now, moms were generally expected to stay home and raise the children while the fathers worked. So here you have a mother that not only does everything a mother does, but she works hard, trains to become an astronaut, and travels to space. Cracking the glass ceiling? More like smashing through Earth’s atmosphere!

Fisher is also extremely educated: she earned a Bachelor of Science in Chemistry in 1971, a Doctor of Medicine in 1976, and also earned a Master of Science in Chemistry in 1987–all from UCLA.

During her single flight, she spent 7 days, 23 hours, and 45 minutes in space.

As of 2014, Fisher was listed as a management astronaut with NASA and was working on NASA’s next generation crewed space program, among other duties.

(As an aside, the image of Anna Fisher above is one of my all-time favorite space images. The look of wonder and courage in her eyes stimulates some of the same emotions I had as a child watching these people take their trips into the skies in their shuttles. It represents a moment in our collective history, in which were just beginning to establish ourselves in a world that was much bigger than we had ever known before.)

Sally K. Ride

Sally Ride in 1984

Sally Ride in 1984 – Source: NASA

Sally Kristen Ride made history on June 18, 1983, when she became the first American woman in space (Russia put the first two women into space: Valentina Tereshkova and Svetlana Savitskaya). On that mission, STS-7, she also became the first woman to operate the shuttle’s robotic arm and the first to use it to retrieve a satellite from orbit. She flew a second flight in 1984, STS-41-G, with fellow Group 8 member Kathryn Sullivan.

During her two missions, she spent a total of 14 days, 7 hours, and 46 minutes in space.

In an interview with USA Today:

 In elementary school, there (were) lots of girls who were interested in science, and that’s true today. For whatever reason, I didn’t succumb to the stereotype that science wasn’t for girls. I got encouragement from my parents. I never ran into a teacher or a counselor who told me that science was for boys. A lot of my friends did.

 

Following the Challenger disaster, Ride served as a member of the Presidential Commission that investigated the accident. After NASA, Ride founded Sally Ride Science, a non-profit organization with a mission to “inspire young people in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and to promote STEM literacy.”

Ride was always humble about it, but she was, and still is, a true inspiration to millions.

Ride passed away on July 23, 2012, while battling pancreatic cancer.

Judith A. Resnik

Judith Resnik in 1978

Judith Resnik in 1978 – Source: NASA

Not all of these stories have as happy of an ending as one would hope. On her second Shuttle mission, Judy Resnik was assigned to STS-51-L aboard Challenger. 73 seconds after lift-off, Challenger’s rocket boosters exploded and the orbiter broke apart. All seven members of the crew lost their lives.

Resnik earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Carnegie-Mellon University in 1970, and a Doctorate in Electrical Engineering from University of Maryland in 1977.

Resnik’s first flight (STS-41-D), in 1984, made her the second American female in space, and the first Jewish-American in space. That mission had the crew deploy three satellites into orbit, as well as deploy the OAST-1 solar array. The array, once unfolded, was 13 feet wide and 102 feet long–“it’s up, and it’s big!” she reported to mission control. When folded, it was a mere 7 inches deep. The array demonstrated the feasibility of large lightweight solar arrays in space. Her total time in space as a result of that mission was 6 days, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds.

Resnik was posthumously awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.

Judy Resnik aboard orbiter Discovery, during STS-41-D

Judy Resnik aboard orbiter Discovery, during STS-41-D – Source: NASA Spaceflight Forums

Legacy

NASA's first female astronauts

NASA’s first female astronauts  – From left to right: Seddon, Sullivan, Resnik, Ride, Fisher, Lucid- Source: NASA

As of May 2015, nearly 60 women have flown into space. Along with Russian cosmonauts Valentina Tereshkova and Svetlana Savitskaya, these are the women that demolished barriers and showed the world that anyone that had the drive and work ethic required could make it in any industry that they desired to be a part of.

  1. Inside the space program, TFNG was a play on an off-color military phrase.

Soyuz Spacecraft Returns to Earth: Year-In-Space Mission Ends

The image below shows the Soyuz TMA-18M spacecraft’s return to Earth, on March 2nd, 2016. Inside are NASA astronaut Scott Kelly, and Russian cosmonauts Mikhail Kornienko and Sergey Volkov. Both Kelly and Kornienko spent almost an entire year in space aboard the International Space Station, in a research effort to understand the health impacts of long-term spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-18M spacecraft, floating back to Earth

Soyuz TMA-18M, floating back to Earth – Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

Click the image for an even gorgeous-er huge version.

Isn’t that image simply amazing?

In Memoriam: Captain Donald Edward Williams

Captain Donald Edward Williams

 

Captain Donald Edward Williams passed away on Tuesday, February 23, 2016. He was 74.

Early Life, Education, and Military Service

Donald Edward Williams was born on February 13, 1942, in Lafayette, Indiana. He grew up working on his father’s farm, spending his time after school running tractors, tending to animals, and completing general repairs. While working, he always took note of the jets flying overhead and thought to himself that being up there looked like a lot more fun that what he was doing down in the dirt. He graduated Otterbein High School, Otterbein, Indiana, in 1960 before earning a bachelor of science degree in Mechanical Engineering from Purdue University. At Purdue, he received his commission through the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC). He completed flight training in Florida, Mississippi, and Texas, earning his pilot wings in 1966.

Williams completed a total of  four deployments to Vietnam, aboard USS Enterprise, as a member of Attack Squadron 113 and Attack Squadron 97. During his deployments, he flew a total of 330 combat missions. After Vietnam, Williams enrolled at the Armed Services Staff College, graduating from the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School in 1974.

Williams was selected as a member of the NASA class of 1978, also known as Astronaut Group 8 or the Thirty Five New Guys (which, I must point out, included gals, too). This was the first new group of astronauts since 1969. He served in various capacities at NASA until being pegged to serve on two separate Space Shuttle missions:

STS-51-D

STS-51-D Mission Patch

STS-51-D Mission Patch

He served as pilot on Space Shuttle mission STS-51-D, which was completed on shuttle Discovery in 1985. That mission included completing a number of experiments (including some utilizing simple toys, with the results being shared with school students), and launching a couple of satellites. One of the satellites malfunctioned upon deployment. As a result, NASA authorized its first unscheduled 3-hour EVA (extravehicular activity).

According to the book, Discovery: Champion of the Space Shuttle Fleet:

The mission became an ingenious effort to avert failure by improvising a difficult rescue without prior training. As engineers and astronauts on the ground devised a solution, they sent instructions to the crew to use on-board materials to make something like a flyswatter and a lacrosse stick.

 

Additionally, that Discovery mission included the first elected government official to fly in space. Utah Senator Edwin Garn joined the crew as Payload Specialist 2, acting as a congressional observer to the program. (Talk about perks of the job!)

STS-34

STS-34 Mission Patch

STS-34 Mission Patch

Williams served as Commander of his second and final spaceflight in 1989, on mission STS-34 aboard shuttle Atlantis. A notable accomplishment of that mission was the deployment of the Galileo spacecraft, which became the first spacecraft to orbit and penetrate the atmosphere of an outer planet.

In a 2002 interview with Rebecca Wright, as part of a NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project, Williams reflected on the STS-34 mission:

I really enjoyed that mission probably even more so than the first because it was my goal to command a mission, first of all, and I got to do that. But secondly, because we knew that Galileo was going to be a lasting program as opposed to the first flight, [where] we deployed the two satellites, [but] it turned out to be a unique flight, too, because of the spacewalk. The Galileo mission we knew, if it was successful, the spacecraft was going to end up in orbit around Jupiter several years later and then there [were] going to be several years of data and images sent back. It was going to be a living, ongoing program, and we got to be a part of it. That was a really unique experience.

Post-NASA

Williams retired from the U.S. Navy, having earned the rank of Captain, and left NASA. He completed numerous projects as a Division Manager with Science Applications International Corporation before his retirement in 2006.

During Williams’s career, he earned the following special awards and commendations: The Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross, Defense Superior Service Medal, 2 Navy Commendation Medals with Combat V, 2 Navy Unit Commendations, a Meritorious Unit Commendation, the National Defense Medal, an Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal, the NASA Space Flight Medal, the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, the Vietnam Service Medal (with 4 stars), a Vietnamese Gallantry Cross (with gold star), and the Vietnam Campaign Medal.

From his roots as a rural farm-boy with his eyes in the sky, to serving his country valiantly in four deployments during the Vietnam war, and finally having the honor to fly two space shuttle missions as a Pilot and a Commander, Donald E. Williams was a true American hero. He was among the best of the best and should serve as an inspiration for centuries to come. We thank you for your service and honor your legacy.

Godspeed, Mr. Williams.

NASA Astronaut Don Williams aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis

NASA Astronaut Don Williams aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis – Source: NASA

 

Footballers and Astronauts

What do professional (American) football players and astronauts have in common?:

Their “office” is about the same size:

ISS compared to a US Football Field

ISS compared to a US Football Field Source: NASA

 

They both require intensive training and the use of helmets too.


F-1 Rocket Engine Recovery

They took rocket-grade kerosene and liquid oxygen, and turned it into 1.5 million pounds of thrust, 32 million horsepower, and made it possible to take the Apollo astronauts to the Moon. I’m talking about the Rocketdyne F-1 rocket engines used in the first stage of Saturn V — the only vehicle to take humans outside of low-Earth orbit.

Following launch, five F-1 engines would burn for about 2-and-one-half minutes, boosting the Saturn V and its payload to an altitude of nearly forty miles, and 55 miles downrange from Cape Kennedy. At that point, the first stage (S-1C) containing the F1 engines would separate from the rest of the Saturn V and fall back to Earth, crashing into the Atlantic Ocean where they would rest forever.

Separation of Apollo first stage from other two stages of the Saturn V.

Separation of the first (S-1C) stage containing the F-1 engines from the other two Saturn V stages, during Apollo 11.

(Image Credit: NASA)

At least, forever was how long we thought they would sit there….

Amazon.com founder, Jeff Bezos, recently announced that a “team of undersea pros” that he funded had found the most famous F-1 engines of all; the ones from Apollo 11 that launched humanity to the Moon, where the first humans would walk on another world. But finding them is just the start, Bezos Expeditions is planning on actually recovering one or more of the F-1s.

“We don’t know yet what condition these engines might be in – they hit the ocean at high velocity and have been in salt water for more than 40 years. On the other hand, they’re made of tough stuff, so we’ll see”, Bezos said in the announcement. He also pointed out that regardless of how long the engines have spent 14,000 feet below the surface of the Atlantic, they are still the sole property of NASA. He also stated that he had requested that NASA make available for display at the Museum of Flight in Seattle, Washington, the second F-1 his group manages to salvage (the first presumably would go to the Smithsonian).

NASA followed the announcement with a press release of their own, in which NASA Administrator Charles Bolden expressed his support for the project, and acknowledged the request to house a second (or the first, if the Smithsonian declines it) F-1 at Bezos’ requested facility.

“NASA does retain ownership of any artifacts recovered and would likely offer one of the Saturn V F-1 engines to the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum in Washington under long-standing arrangements with the institution as the holder of the national collection of aerospace artifacts.

“If the Smithsonian declines or if a second engine is recovered, we will work to ensure an engine or other artifacts are available for display at the Museum of Flight in Seattle, as Jeff requested in his correspondence with my office.”

As of yet, there hasn’t been an announced timeline, cost, or specific details released about the project; however, I personally suspect Bezos will have no problem pulling together the resources needed to tackle the feat.

Bezos ended the announcement with a quote that echoes my own heart when it comes to NASA’s ability to inspire:

NASA is one of the few institutions I know that can inspire five-year-olds. It sure inspired me, and with this endeavor, maybe we can inspire a few more youth to invent and explore.

Good luck, Bezos Industries. Thanks for taking the public treasure that NASA is and multiplying its inspiration for generations to come.


The Corned Beef Sandwich Incident

Today marks the anniversary of one of NASA’s more “corny” moments. It was on this day in 1965 that… well, let me explain:

Project Gemini was the bridge between the Mercury and Apollo NASA space programs. Mercury proved NASA had the capability to put humans into Earth orbit, and Gemini set out with a new set of goals, including: putting multiple astronauts into orbit aboard the same craft, learning how to walk in space, practicing rendezvous and docking between crafts, and testing the influence of long-term spaceflights. All of these were necessary to begin the Apollo program with its goal to put a man on the Moon (and bring him back home safely!) before the end of the decade.

Gemini 3 Mission Patch

Gemini 3 Mission Patch / Source: NASA

Following two unmanned Gemini missions, Gemini III was the first manned mission in the program and carried Command Pilot Virgil I. “Gus” Grissom and Pilot John W. Young. Gus Grissom became the first human to fly into space twice, while John Young took his rookie flight.

The Gemini III capsule1 orbited the Earth three times on March 23, 1965, over the course of just under five hours.

Then, at 1 hour, 52 minutes, and 26 seconds into the mission… it happened.


Grissom: What is it?
Young: Corn beef sandwich.
Grissom: Where did that come from?
Young: I brought it with me. Let’s see how it tastes. Smells, doesn’t it?
Grissom: Yes, it’s breaking up. I’m going to stick it in my pocket.
Young: Is it?
Young: It was a thought, anyway.
Grissom: Yep.
Young: Not a very good one.
Grissom: Pretty good, though, if it would just hold together.


John Young, through the aid of fellow astronaut Wally Schirra, had smuggled aboard a corned beef sandwich. Young and Grissom shared a few bites, but it began to crumble and little bits of it began to float around inside the capsule. It was quickly stowed away to prevent the pieces from shorting out any sensitive electronic equipment.

After Gemini III returned to Earth, Young, Grissom, and Schirra, and NASA caught flack for the incident from members of Congress that were looking for an excuse to cut agency funding.

Young elaborated in his 2012 memoir, Forever Young: “A couple of congressmen became upset, thinking that, by smuggling in the sandwich and eating part of it, Gus and I had ignored the actual space food that we were up there to evaluate, costing the country millions of dollars.”

A Congressional Committee even held a hearing over the ordeal.

According to CollectSpace.com: Congressman George Shipley of Illinois explained his concerns to NASA administrator James Webb, associate administer for manned spaceflight George Mueller and director of the Manned Spacecraft Center (now Johnson Space Center) Robert Gilruth, during the hearings: “My thought is that … to have one of the astronauts slip a sandwich aboard the vehicle, frankly, is just a little bit disgusting.

The reply came from Mueller:

“We have taken steps … to prevent recurrence of corned beef sandwiches in future flights.”

Gemini 3 Crew: John Young (L) and "Gus" Grissom (R)

Gemini 3 Crew: John Young (L) and “Gus” Grissom (R) / Source: NASA



And there you have it: the story of the first corned beef sandwich in space. Sometimes a sandwich is just a sandwich, and other times it threatens humanity’s greatest space program.

Check out John Young’s fantastic memoir, Forever Young: A Life of Adventure in Air and Space

(This post was originally published on March 23, 2011. It has been slightly modified from its original version.)


  1. Nicknamed by Grissom, “Molly Brown”, after a popular Broadway musical, “The Unsinkable Molly Brown”. NASA PR was originally not impressed with the nickname, but backed off any attempts to ditch the moniker when they discovered Grissom’s back-up name for the capsule was “Titanic”.

Today Marks The Anniversary Of Humankind's First Spacewalk

It was on this day in 1965, that cosmonaut Alexey Leonov crawled out of his Voskhod 3KD 1 spacecraft and performed humankind’s first spacewalk.

Stills of Alexey Leonov conducting mankind's first spacewalk.

Stills of Alexey Leonov conducting mankind’s first spacewalk. / Source: NASA Great Images in NASA Collection

Alexey Leonov stepped into uncharted territory on that historic day, marking a milestone in human exploration. While it wasn’t immediately publicized 2, Leonov’s 12-minute-9-second spacewalk skirted on the edge of disaster.

Once Leonov entered the vacuum of space, his spacesuit become inflated and maneuverability suffered. The real trouble began as Leonov tried re-entering the Voskhod 2 craft, and became stuck in the the hatch due to the inflated suit. He was forced to partially depressurize his suit in order to fit through the hatch, putting himself at great risk of suffering decompression sickness, known as ‘the bends’.

While the spacewalk and a number of other elements of the mission lingered on the verge of catastrophe, this was a time when survival equated to success.

American astronauts followed suit soon after, as they crawled out of their Gemini capsules to experience the same joy and danger Leonov experienced (Gene Cernan’s Gemini spacewalk was also a close-call). We’ve come a long way since those baby-steps into space, with now over 200 humans having walked in space.

So, to General Leonov, I offer a belated congratulations and thank you for pushing against the boundaries of the final frontier.

*This post originally published on March 18, 2011.*


  1. The mission was Voskhod 2, the craft was Voskhod 3KD
  2. The Soviets originally claimed the spacewalk went off without a hitch, and that Leonov was “feeling well both during his period outside the cabin and after he re-entered the spacecraft”

Flashing the ISS

In case you missed this story from earlier this week, I wanted to point out an interesting historical event.

For years, people have wondered if the astronauts aboard the International Space Station could see a flashlight, or perhaps laser pointer, pointed at it from the Earth’s surface. While it was theoretically possible and tried a number of times, it had never been done successfully… until March 4, 2012.

Texan amateur astronomers of the San Antonio Astronomy Association and the Austin Astronomy Society put together a plan to prove the possibility. On March 4, these amateur astronomers implemented their experiment. They left the urban lights for dark skies (and as importantly, a dark ground from the vantage point of the ISS) at the Lozano Observatory. There, they set up a one-watt blue laser and a pair of bright spotlights, complete with a simple, yet effective, system to strobe the spotlights: people holding wooden boards. Timing had to be calculated precisely for a couple of reasons. Not only did the ISS have to pass their dark location overhead at night, but it had to be such that the ISS had a view of the Earth without the Sun blinding their view; after all, it is the bright sunlight reflecting off of the ISS that makes is so bright and visible to us on Earth.

Their timing, and a few months of planning, paid off. As the ISS came overhead of the anxious amateur astronomers, they flipped on the laser and began alternating the spotlights on-and-off in two-second intervals. ISS Expedition 30 Flight Engineer, Don Pettit, had been involved in the planning of the experiment and had been communicating with the group in the days leading up to the attempt. At the time that the ground crew began their attempts to flash the space station, Pettit was situated in the ISS Cupola, eyes peeled with his camera snapping pictures. The ISS pass was complete within a few minutes, and the group had to anxiously await feedback from Pettit. The next day, their confirmation came.
Image showing the flash experiment from the ISS.

(Click image for larger size / Image Credit: Don Pettit/Fragile Oasis)

Success! According to Keith Little, Marketing Director of the San Antonio Astronomical Association, Don Pettit told him that not only could he see the spotlights, but easily saw the laser by itself!

It’s wonderful when astronauts orbiting the Earth can work together with amateur astronomers to collaborate on experiments such as this, and its icing on the cake when they make history in the process.

For more information about the event, you can view a video of the experiment from the ground here and listen to an episode of 365 Days of Astronomy pertaining to the event.


An Apollo 9 Anniversary

On this day in 1969, Commander Jim McDivitt, Command Module Pilot David Scott, and Lunar Module Pilot Rusty Schweickart blasted off from Kennedy Space Center for the 10-day Apollo 9 mission. Apollo 9 was the third manned-mission of the Apollo Program and tested many components critical for lunar landing that would occur two missions later with Apollo 11.

Just over four decades later and on the anniversary of its lift-off from Earth, I happen to find myself in San Diego, California where the Apollo 9 Command Module (nicknamed “Gumdrop” by its crew) is displayed at the San Diego Air and Space Museum. I was thrilled to take my family to pay tribute to such an important part of the world’s space program.

The first thing that jumps out at you when seeing an Apollo Command Module for the first time is its size; specifically, how small it is, considering three grown men spent most of their mission living in it.

Apollo 9 Command Module "Gumdrop" and Me

"Gumdrop" and yours truly.

But things really seem small when you take a look inside:

Interior of Apollo 9 Command Module "Gumdrop"

Interior view of "Gumdrop"

The interior offers what appears to be even less room than you have flying coach on a commercial airliner. My legs start to feel cramped after just looking at this picture, so I can only imagine what it must have felt like to spend days in there. I’m guessing that when NASA was recruiting its astronauts, claustrophobia was a disqualifier.

View of some of Gumdrop's controls

Detail of just a few of the seemingly-infinite number of switches and controls.

I spent a lot of time observing the intricate details on the exterior of the capsule as well. The capsule looks exactly how you’d expect, for something that had to withstand temperatures of a couple of hundred degrees below zero (F) on the low end, all the way up to 5,000-degrees (F) on the high end. And that’s to say nothing about the other forces involved in launch, orbit, and reentry.

Detail of "Gumdrop's" Roll Engines

Detail of "Gumdrop's" Roll Engines

The capsule’s heat shield was made of an ablative material — meaning it “turns white hot, chars, and then melts away” during reentry. Amazingly, this heat shield was only two inches at its thickest point, and a mere half inch in some spots! It must have provided quite a light-show for anyone watching the intimidating, yet intended, fiery break-away of the heat shield.

Exterior detail of "Gumdrop"

Exterior detail of "Gumdrop".

To top off the exhibit, there were many other displays related to, not only Apollo 9, but other NASA manned spaceflight programs as well, which I’ll save for another time.

My only gripes about the display were that I wished there were more items and information (though, I could probably never be satisfied in this regard) and more thought put into the ambiance of the displays (for example, rather than controlled lighting, many of the exhibits were lit by very large windows which created a lot of glare that was difficult to see through on some of the displays). Also, I was sort of hoping there would have been some sort of special recognition of today being Apollo 9’s lift-off anniversary since that mission is the focus of one of their major exhibits; but now I’m just being picky.

All said and done, spending a few hours up close and personal with Gumdrop and the associated displays was a wonderful way to celebrate the anniversary of the lift-off of Apollo 9.

Apollo 9 Mission Insignia

Apollo 9 Mission Insignia