In Memoriam: Apollo 1

Today marks the sad anniversary of the day we lost the crew of Apollo 1.

On January 27, 1967, heroes Virgil I. “Gus” Grissom, Edward H. White II, and Roger B. Chaffee, were conducting a launch rehearsal test in an Apollo Command Module. Their mission was to be the first crewed mission of the Apollo program, which would ultimately put humans on the Moon. These three men paid the ultimate sacrifice so that humanity could spread its reach into the cosmos.

Apollo 1 Mission Patch

Apollo 1 Mission Patch – Credit: NASA

Virgil Ivan “Gus” Grissom

Virgil "Gus" Grissom

Virgil “Gus” Grissom – Source: NASA/Public Domain

Gus Grissom was born on April 3, 1926. He joined the United States Army straight out of high school, in the midst of Word War II. His early military career was spent as a clerk at Boca Raton Army Airfield. Grissom was discharged after the war ended, a few months after marrying his wife, Betty Moore. Utilizing his G.I. Bill, he earned a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from Purdue University. Upon graduation, Grissom re-enlisted into the newly-formed United States Air Force, and began flight training. He received his pilot wings in 1951. Grissom flew 100 combat missions during the Korean War. He requested to fly another 25 flights in Korea, but his request was denied. For his service, he was promoted to First Lieutenant and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross.

Grissom went on to earn a Bachelor of Science in Aeromechanics from the U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology, before enrolling at the USAF Test Pilot school. He was assigned as a test pilot of the fighter branch at Wright-Patterson AFB.

In 1958, Grissom received a “Top Secret”-classified letter, instructing him to report to an address in Washington D.C. in civilian clothing. He was ultimately one of 110 military test pilots who were invited to learn more about the space program and Project Mercury. Though he knew competition would be extremely fierce, he submitted to the program and began a rigorous set of physical and mental examinations. On April 13, 1959, Grissom received notice that he had been selected as one of the seven astronauts for Project Mercury.

Gus Grissom became the second American in space, when his ‘Liberty Bell 7’ capsule flew a 15 minute and 37 second sub-orbital flight. Grissom flew a second flight as a member of Project Gemini, in March of 1965, becoming the first NASA astronaut with two spaceflights under his belt.

His third flight would have him as commander of the Apollo 1 mission.

Roger Bruce Chaffee

Roger Chaffee

Roger Chaffee – Source: NASA/Public Domain

Roger Bruce Chaffee was born on February 15, 1935 in Grand Rapids, Michigan. In his youth, he was the quintessential Boy Scout. He excelled in the program, earning many badges that typically weren’t earned by members as young as he was. He continued in the program as an Eagle Scout, earning ten more merit badges. His participation in the scouts was cited as a benefit to his astronaut training that he’d participate in years later–particularly during survival training missions.

In his youth, he gained an early love of flying and had a natural affinity for mechanical and artistic skills. Chaffee graduated in the top fifth of his high school class and accepted a Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps scholarship, using it to enroll in the Illinois Institute of Technology. After his first year, he combined “his love of flying with his aptitude in science and mathematics in order to pursue a degree in aeronautical engineering.” He applied for a transfer and was accepted into Purdue University, to enter its renowned aeronautical engineering program. As a junior at Purdue, he met his future wife, Martha Horn.

Chaffee earned his BS in aeronautical engineering in June, 1957, and completed his Naval training in August of the same year. He began military flight training and learned to fly the T-34, T-28, and F9F Cougar, advancing quickly through the programs. He earned his wings in 1959 and flew numerous missions including reconnaissance duties, among them taking aerial photography of the Cuban missile buildup. Chaffee continued to work hard towards advancement.

Ever since the first seven Mercury astronauts were named, I’ve been keeping my studies up… At the end of each year, the Navy asks its officers what type of duty they would aspire to. Each year, I indicated I wanted to train as a test pilot for astronaut status.” (On Course to the Stars – C. Chrysler/R. Chaffee)

When NASA began recruiting for Astronaut Group 3, Chaffee was included as one of the initial pool of 1,800 applicants. He continued to work on his Master’s in engineering, while undergoing the multitude of invasive tests conducted on astronaut candidates. On October 18, 1963, Chaffee was officially admitted to the astronaut corps along with 13 other pilots.

During the Gemini program, Chaffee served as capsule communicator (CAPCOM) for the Gemini 3 and 4 missions.

Apollo 1 would have been his first space mission.

Edward Higgins “Ed” White II

Edward Higgens White

Edward Higgens White – Source: Public Domain

Ed White was born on November 14, 1930 in San Antonio, Texas. Like Chaffee, White was also active in the Boy Scouts of America. His father was a major general in the Air Force, who nurtured his son’s interest in flying. After graduating high school in 1948, he was accepted into the United States Military Academy at West Point where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree. While at West Point, he met Patricia Finegan, whom he would marry in 1953. He was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Air Force when he began his flight training. After earning his wings, he was assigned to the 22nd Fighter Day Squadron at Bitburg Air Base in West Germany. He spent three and a half years flying missions in defense of NATO.

White was an excellent athlete, and record-setting hurdler. He missed a chance to join the 1952 U.S. Olympic team by only the narrowest of margins.

White returned to the U.S. in 1958 and enrolled in the University of Michigan. There, he earned a Master of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering, before entering test pilot training in 1959. After completing the program, he was transferred to Wright-Patterson Air Force base, where he served as an experimental test pilot and training captain in the Aeronautical Systems Division. During his military career, he flew more than 3,000 hours and earned the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.

White was one of the nine men chosen for Astronaut Group 2, and was selected to fly into space on the Gemini 4 mission. That mission would have White and Command Pilot James McDivitt spending four days in Earth orbit, from June 3-7, 1965. During the mission, White became the first American to conduct a spacewalk, as he enjoyed 21 minutes outside of the Gemini capsule. White had to essentially be ordered back into the craft, remarking that re-entering the capsule was the “saddest moment of his life”.

Ed White, conducting America's first spacewalk

Ed White, conducting America’s first spacewalk – Source: NASA / James McDivitt

Upon Gemini 4’s return to Earth, “President Johnson promoted White to the rank of lieutenant colonel and presented him with the NASA Exceptional Service Medal and the U.S. Air Force Senior Astronaut Wings.

Ed White’s next mission assignment was as senior pilot for Apollo 1.

Apollo 1

Apollo 1, initially designated AS-204, was slated to be the first crewed mission of the Apollo program which carried the ultimate goal of landing humans on the Moon and returning them safely back to Earth. Gus Grissom, Roger Chaffee, and Ed White carried the honors of being assigned the first mission of the program. They were to spend up to 14 days in Earth orbit, while testing many systems implemented with the new program.

On January 27, 1967, the three crew members were conducting a rehearsal for their upcoming mission. An electric spark ignited the high pressure pure oxygen environment inside the capsule, and the flammable materials inside quickly caught fire. The hatch was sealed, and the pressure differential between the inside and outside of the capsule made it impossible for the crew to escape. The three heroes didn’t have a chance to make it out alive.

Roger Chaffee, Gus Grissom, and Ed White gave their lives that day, becoming the first casualties of the U.S. space program. They gave them not only to their country, but to all of humanity. Their sacrifice made future flights safer and successful.

A plaque in their honor is affixed to the launch pedestal of Launch Complex 34, the site of the fire. It reads:

IN MEMORY

OF

THOSE WHO MADE THE ULTIMATE SACRIFICE

SO OTHERS COULD REACH FOR THE STARS

 

AD ASTRA PER ASPERA

(A ROUGH ROAD LEADS TO THE STARS)

 

GOD SPEED TO THE CREW

OF

APOLLO 1

 

Apollo 1 Crew. Left to right: White, Grissom, Chaffee - Public Domain/NASA

Apollo 1 Crew. Left to right: White, Grissom, Chaffee – Public Domain/NASA

 

In Memoriam: Captain Donald Edward Williams

Captain Donald Edward Williams

 

Captain Donald Edward Williams passed away on Tuesday, February 23, 2016. He was 74.

Early Life, Education, and Military Service

Donald Edward Williams was born on February 13, 1942, in Lafayette, Indiana. He grew up working on his father’s farm, spending his time after school running tractors, tending to animals, and completing general repairs. While working, he always took note of the jets flying overhead and thought to himself that being up there looked like a lot more fun that what he was doing down in the dirt. He graduated Otterbein High School, Otterbein, Indiana, in 1960 before earning a bachelor of science degree in Mechanical Engineering from Purdue University. At Purdue, he received his commission through the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC). He completed flight training in Florida, Mississippi, and Texas, earning his pilot wings in 1966.

Williams completed a total of  four deployments to Vietnam, aboard USS Enterprise, as a member of Attack Squadron 113 and Attack Squadron 97. During his deployments, he flew a total of 330 combat missions. After Vietnam, Williams enrolled at the Armed Services Staff College, graduating from the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School in 1974.

Williams was selected as a member of the NASA class of 1978, also known as Astronaut Group 8 or the Thirty Five New Guys (which, I must point out, included gals, too). This was the first new group of astronauts since 1969. He served in various capacities at NASA until being pegged to serve on two separate Space Shuttle missions:

STS-51-D

STS-51-D Mission Patch

STS-51-D Mission Patch

He served as pilot on Space Shuttle mission STS-51-D, which was completed on shuttle Discovery in 1985. That mission included completing a number of experiments (including some utilizing simple toys, with the results being shared with school students), and launching a couple of satellites. One of the satellites malfunctioned upon deployment. As a result, NASA authorized its first unscheduled 3-hour EVA (extravehicular activity).

According to the book, Discovery: Champion of the Space Shuttle Fleet:

The mission became an ingenious effort to avert failure by improvising a difficult rescue without prior training. As engineers and astronauts on the ground devised a solution, they sent instructions to the crew to use on-board materials to make something like a flyswatter and a lacrosse stick.

 

Additionally, that Discovery mission included the first elected government official to fly in space. Utah Senator Edwin Garn joined the crew as Payload Specialist 2, acting as a congressional observer to the program. (Talk about perks of the job!)

STS-34

STS-34 Mission Patch

STS-34 Mission Patch

Williams served as Commander of his second and final spaceflight in 1989, on mission STS-34 aboard shuttle Atlantis. A notable accomplishment of that mission was the deployment of the Galileo spacecraft, which became the first spacecraft to orbit and penetrate the atmosphere of an outer planet.

In a 2002 interview with Rebecca Wright, as part of a NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project, Williams reflected on the STS-34 mission:

I really enjoyed that mission probably even more so than the first because it was my goal to command a mission, first of all, and I got to do that. But secondly, because we knew that Galileo was going to be a lasting program as opposed to the first flight, [where] we deployed the two satellites, [but] it turned out to be a unique flight, too, because of the spacewalk. The Galileo mission we knew, if it was successful, the spacecraft was going to end up in orbit around Jupiter several years later and then there [were] going to be several years of data and images sent back. It was going to be a living, ongoing program, and we got to be a part of it. That was a really unique experience.

Post-NASA

Williams retired from the U.S. Navy, having earned the rank of Captain, and left NASA. He completed numerous projects as a Division Manager with Science Applications International Corporation before his retirement in 2006.

During Williams’s career, he earned the following special awards and commendations: The Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross, Defense Superior Service Medal, 2 Navy Commendation Medals with Combat V, 2 Navy Unit Commendations, a Meritorious Unit Commendation, the National Defense Medal, an Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal, the NASA Space Flight Medal, the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, the Vietnam Service Medal (with 4 stars), a Vietnamese Gallantry Cross (with gold star), and the Vietnam Campaign Medal.

From his roots as a rural farm-boy with his eyes in the sky, to serving his country valiantly in four deployments during the Vietnam war, and finally having the honor to fly two space shuttle missions as a Pilot and a Commander, Donald E. Williams was a true American hero. He was among the best of the best and should serve as an inspiration for centuries to come. We thank you for your service and honor your legacy.

Godspeed, Mr. Williams.

NASA Astronaut Don Williams aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis

NASA Astronaut Don Williams aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis – Source: NASA