What’s Up: September 2017

It’s September and a wonderful time to enjoy the night sky. In northern latitudes, the length of night is generally outpacing the upcoming winter chill. Spring and Fall are great times to become reacquainted with the cosmos.

Here’s a brief run-down of what to expect in the September skies (note: this information is tailored to those of us in the Northern Hemisphere).

What’s that planet?:
If it’s in the evening, it’s most likely Jupiter. If it’s in the morning, you might be seeing Venus, Mercury or Mars.

This month, Jupiter is its bold, bright self, but it’s tracking fairly close to the Sun and setting in the southwest. You’ll see it shortly after sundown, earlier and earlier the further north you are. In October, Jupiter will be outside of our view until its return in November. On September 21 and 22, Jupiter will appear very near to a thin crescent Moon. Saturn is also up during September nights, though you’ll want to consult a star chart or skymap app to find it due to it being hard to distinguish from stars. Speaking of Saturn, September 15 marks the grand finale of the Cassini spacecraft. After 20 years of astonishing service, Cassini will plunge into Saturn’s atmosphere and end one of the most successful space missions imagined.

On September mornings, keep an eye out for Venus, Mars, and Mercury. Venus is hard to miss, it’s the brightest object in the sky following the Sun and Moon. Keep an eye to the east about two hours before sunrise (closer to sunrise the later we get into the month) for our bright sister planet.

If you’re fortunate enough to live on the mid-northern latitudes, you might get to witness a fantastic conjunction of Mercury and Mars. (If you’re as far north as Alaska, you’ll need a clear view of the horizon.) On September 16, Mercury and Mars appearing extremely close to each other in the morning sky. Use this website to get a custom report for your viewing location.

If you need help finding out when a planet rises and sets for your location, this website is fairly indispensable.

Happy viewing!

A Fictive Flight Above Real Mars

You deserve a break. I recommend you take a few minutes to watch this jaw-dropping creation by Jan Fröjdman. Fröjdman retrieved thousands of stereoscopic images from the HiRISE camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. He assembled them into a video, and post-processed it into the masterpiece below. Enjoy.

(Make Full-Screen and HD for the most amazing results.)

Beagle 2 Found

On June 2nd, 2003, a Soyuz rocket with a Fregat upper stage blasted off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, in Kazakhstan. The rocket carried the European Space Agency’s Mars Express mission instruments on an exciting journey to Mars. After spending less than a couple hours in a 200km (124 mile) parking orbit around Earth, the Fregat fired again, propelling the spacecraft towards a Mars transfer orbit. After three minutes, Mars Express separated from the Fregat and began its sixth month trek to the red planet.1

Artist's impression of Beagle 2 lander. -  ESA/Denman productions

Artist’s impression of Beagle 2 lander. –
ESA/Denman productions

Mars Express consisted of two main components: the Mars Express orbiter and the Beagle 2 lander. The two components were to separate, with the former continuing to orbit, map and study the planet and the latter to drop into the thin Martian atmosphere, land, and conduct research from the surface. On Christmas morning in 2003, Beagle 2 dropped onto Mars’s surface and was never heard from again. Many attempts were made to communicate with the lander, but no response was forthcoming. By February 2004, with no communications received from the Beagle, it was officially declared lost. The Mars Express orbiter, however, was a success and has been capturing important data and wonderful images of Mars for over a decade now.

Fast forward twelve years to the end of 2014. Michael Croon, a former member of the Mars Express team, and other colleagues continue to sift through images produced by the HiRISE camera that’s aboard NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Croon had requested images of the planned landing area through HiWish, a public suggestion page for HiRISE targets. Against any likely odds, Croon spotted something on the edge of the frame in one of the images he acquired. The contrast was low in the initial image and he wasn’t convinced his candidate was anything special. He requested additional imagery from the same location. In the new images, his candidate was a bright spot that appeared to move slightly between images. This was suggestive of being consistent with sunlight reflecting off of various parts of the Beagle 2. Some careful image clean-up work conducted by the HiRISE team provided even clearer views of the object in question, all but confirming that the Beagle 2 was finally found.

December 15, 2014 image taken by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, showing what's believed to be the long-lost Beagle 2. -  NASA / JPL / Univ. of Arizona / Univ. of Leicester

December 15, 2014 image taken by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, showing what’s believed to be the long-lost Beagle 2. –
NASA / JPL / Univ. of Arizona / Univ. of Leicester

Subsequent discussion and analysis of the images suggests that the Beagle 2 only partially deployed its petal-like solar panels. The communications antenna would only have been revealed after a full deployment, thus the suspected reason why Beagle 2 never sent a message confirming it’s landing.

Labelled grey-scale image identifies the lander, and its parachute and rear cover.

Labelled grey-scale image identifies the lander, and its parachute and rear cover. –
University of Leicester/ Beagle 2/NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

While it’s still a mystery as to the cause of the lander failing to deploy completely after landing, it is much relief to the team members that have spent the past 12 years wondering what had ever become of their precious lander.

  1. The Fregat coasted off into interplanetary space.

Alien Footprints

Ever wondered about the track’s humanity has left on other worlds? If so, you’ll probably appreciate this infographic from Karl Tate and Space.com.

View the list of extraterrestrial vehicles and distances traveled on other worlds.

Source Space.com: All about our solar system, outer space and exploration

It’s a fairly intuitive image, so there’s not a lot I need to say. I’m jealous of the miles of tracks that were laid down by the Apollo astronauts in their moon buggies. Could you imagine?

I hope to live long enough to see just as many human-driven miles on Mars.

Neil deGrasse Tyson on The Daily Show

Astrophysicist, and renowned promoter of science, Neil deGrasse Tyson, sat down for an interview on The Daily Show with John Stewart. As always, Neil’s commentary drips of a passion for discovery and exploration. Science and comedy mix well!

The Daily Show with Jon Stewart

The Things We've Flung At Mars

Here is one great graphic. It depicts nearly every dedicated mission that humans have, or have attempted to, send to Mars.

Mars Exploration Family Portrait

Click image for larger version, or visit the source for an even larger version/ (Credit: Credit: Jason Davis / astrosaur.us)

The image creator, Jason Davis, explains how he decided which missions should be included:

I only counted missions that had Mars as the end destination. Additionally, multi-craft missions only count once — unless two landers were sent on two different rockets. Represented in the center of the poster across the planet’s surface are all of the successful landers.

The Planetary Society also has the image available as a poster in their store. (Buying the poster from them not only gets you a cool poster, but supports an important group as well.)

Hope Dims For Phobos-Grunt

It’s being reported that the Russian Space Agency, Roscosmos, is publicly recognizing the dwindling possibility to regain contact and control of its latest Mars (Mars’ moon, Phobos, actually) mission, Phobos-Grunt. Phobos-Grunt launched on November 9 and made it into Earth orbit; however, it failed to fire its engines that would have sent it on its way to Mars’ moon Phobos.

According to the BBC:

Engineers have tried in vain to contact the spacecraft, and Roscosmos deputy head Vitaliy Davydov said the situation now looked very grim.

“One should be a realist,” he was quoted as saying by RIA Novosti.

Later, another Russian news agency, Interfax, quoted Davydov as saying that Phobos-Grunt might fall from orbit anytime between late December 2011 and February 2012.

This is unfortunate news on a couple of fronts. First, losing the mission to Phobos is tremendously disappointing. The research that would have been gained from that mission would have been remarkable. The second reason this situation is particularly unfortunate is that it’s not quite known what kind of consequences Earth might face when Phobos-Grunt drops out of orbit and comes crashing back down to Earth. It is currently holding quite a bit of fuel — the fuel that would have taken it to Phobos — and the design of fuel tanks often allows them to survive re-entry into Earth’s atmosphere more successfully than other spacecraft components.

To be certain, both professionals and amateurs alike will be keeping their eyes on Phobos-Grunt and crunching the numbers to try and ascertain what might happen within the next few months if — and it is seemingly highly likely at this point — it comes back down to Earth.

Any developments will be reported here.