Send Your Name to the Sun

This summer, NASA will launch the Parker Solar Probe, a historic mission to kiss the Sun. According to the project website:

NASA’s Parker Solar Probe mission will revolutionize our understanding of the sun. Parker Solar Probe will provide new data on solar activity and make critical contributions to our ability to forecast major space-weather events that impact life on Earth.

You have an exciting opportunity to be a part of this mission. Just visit the link below and you can include your name on a memory card that will fly aboard Parker Solar Probe spacecraft.

I want to send my name to the Sun!

VIP Pass to the Sun

You have until April 27, 2018 to add your name. Don’t forget to submit the names of your friends and family as well!

 

John Glenn’s Orbital Journey

On this day in 1962, the Atlas rocket boosters that John Glenn, inside his Friendship 7 capsule, was strapped to the top of ignited. Millions of Americans watched as the resulting 350,000 pounds of thrust vibrated the vehicle that was about to take the first American into orbit around the Earth.

CAPCOM (Capsule Communicator): 3… 2… 1… 0.
John Glenn: Roger. The clock is operating. We’re underway.

Launch of Friendship 7

Launch of Friendship 7, the first American manned orbital space flight. Astronaut John Glenn aboard, the Mercury-Atlas rocket is launched from Pad 14. / Source: NASA

Minutes later, John Glenn became the fifth human in space and the first American to enter Earth orbit. Previously, Alan Shepard and Gus Grissom became the first and second, respectively, Americans in space; however, John Glenn was the first American to reach the important milestone of completing orbits of the Earth.

For the next 4 hours and 55 minutes, John Glenn completed three orbits of the Earth, reaching speeds greater than 17,000 miles per hour. NASA was still concerned about the effects of spaceflight on humans and this was the longest one an American astronaut had been subjected to yet. John Glenn remarked a number of times during the mission that he felt just fine, and was rather enjoying himself.

Five minutes into the mission:

John Glenn: Oh, that view is tremendous!

View of Earth from Friendship 7

View of earth taken by Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. during his MA-6 spaceflight. / Source: NASA

John Glenn witnessed three sunsets from space during the flight.

John Glenn: The sky above is absolutely black, completely black. I can see stars though up above.

John Glenn: This is Friendship Seven. At this, MARK, at this present time, I still have some clouds visible below me, the sunset was beautiful. It went down very rapidly. I still have a brilliant blue band clear across the horizon almost covering my whole window. The redness of the sunset I can still see through some of the clouds way over to the left of my course. Over.

Sunset from Friendship 7

Orbital sunset photographed by Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. aboard the \”Friendship 7\” during his Mercury-Atlas 6 (MA-6) flight. / Source: NASA

From his fantastic vantage point, he observed dust storms and fires in Africa and the lights of Perth, Australia.

And then there was his “fireflies”, which he first noticed at about 1 hour and 15 minutes into the flight:

John Glenn: This is Friendship Seven. I’ll try to describe what I’m in here. I am in a big mass of some very small particles, that are brilliantly lit up like they’re luminescent. I never saw anything like it. They round a little: they’re coming by the capsule, and they look like little stars. A whole shower of them coming by.

They swirl around the capsule and go in front of the window and they’re all brilliantly lighted. They probably average maybe 7 or 8 feet apart., but I can see them all down below me, also.

CAPCOM: Roger, Friendship Seven. Can you hear any impact with the capsule? Over.

John Glenn: Negative, negative. They’re very slow; they’re not going away from me more than maybe 3 or 4 miles per hour. They’re going at the same speed I am approximately. They’re only very slightly under my speed. Over.

They do, they do have a different motion, though, from me because they swirl around the capsule and then depart back the way I am looking.

Are you receiving? Over.

There are literally thousands of them.

These “fireflies”, as Glenn called them after the mission, were later determined to be ice crystals that would accumulate on the craft on the dark side of the Earth and then begin to break off of the capsule when the Sun’s heat returned. 1

Back on the ground, serious considerations were being made. A flight controller received a warning from a sensor on Friendship, indicating a loose heat shield. If the sensor was correct in its reading, the only thing holding the heat shield in place was the straps from the retrorocket package. After debate, a decision was made; Glenn was instructed to refrain from jettisoning the retropack — a normal procedure for re-entry — in hopes that it would hold the heat shield in place during re-entry; the alternative was the craft and Glenn disintegrating in the Earth’s atmosphere. Control offered no explanation for the procedure until after successful re-entry. Glenn suspected a problem with the heat shield, but remained focused on the parts of the craft he could control.

CAPCOM: This is Texas Cap Com, Friendship Seven. We are recommending that you leave the retropackage on through the entire reentry.

John Glenn: This is Friendship Seven. What is the reason for this? Do you have any reason? Over.

CAPCOM: Not at this time; this is the judgment of Cape Flight.

The sensor ultimately proved to be faulty and the heat shield remained securely attached to Friendship. 2

Aside from using more fuel than expected for attitude corrections, a hot spacesuit that had to be regularly adjusted for cooling, and excess cabin humidity, the rest of the flight was essentially flawless.

Glenn fired his retrorockets and descended back to Earth. He splashed down in the Atlantic, 40 miles downrange from the expected landing site. The USS Noa reached Friendship seventeen minutes later and hoisted it onto the ship. Glenn was supposed to exit the capsule from the top hatch, but instead decided to blow the side hatch instead. With a loud bang, the hatch blew open and Glenn emerged and jumped to the deck of the Noa. With a smile, his first words were: “It was hot in there.”

Astronaut John Glenn Jr. in his Mercury spacesuit

Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. in his Mercury spacesuit. / Source: NASA

Glenn returned to a hero’s welcome and a ecstatic ticker-tape parade in New York City. Americans were energized with the progress in the race with the Soviets. And with John Glenn’s help, America — and mankind itself — took another step forward into the uncharted heavens above.

*This post was originally published February 20, 2011. Small updates have been made since then.


  1. In fact, it was solved during the next Mercury mission, Aurora 7, by Scott Carpenter. To test his theory, he banged on the side of the capsule and watched as they broke off of the exterior of the craft!
  2. And it provided a nice fireworks show for Glenn during re-entry. “My condition is good, but that was a real fireball, boy. I had great chunks of that retropack breaking off all the way through.”

Video: Explorer 1

Check out this video that tells the abridged story of Explorer 1: the first satellite put into orbit by the United States.

These videos are something new that I’m going to try and produce regularly If you like the video, please share. I welcome your feedback.

After you watch the video, you can read the full story here: Explorer 1 – America’s First Space Satellite.

Cassini Week: Artistic Imagery

We’ve all marveled over Cassini’s images of the Saturn system for more than a decade. Saturn is a truly dynamic place, surrounded by equally dynamic worlds. But Cassini’s images did more than just capture images of these distant places; it created art. Breathtaking ‘landscapes’, magnificent portraits, and photographs perfectly timed and framed. Cassini has all of the skill and talent of a master photographer, with special thanks to its imaging team back on Earth. Below are just a few of my favorite Cassini photos.

Dione, Saturn, Rings, and Enceladus

Dione, Saturn, Rings, and Enceladus – Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI

Quintet of Moons

Quintet of Moons – Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

Janus (179 kilometers, or 111 miles across) is on the far left. Pandora (81 kilometers, or 50 miles across) orbits between the A ring and the thin F ring near the middle of the image. Brightly reflective Enceladus (504 kilometers, or 313 miles across) appears above the center of the image. Saturn’s second largest moon, Rhea (1,528 kilometers, or 949 miles across), is bisected by the right edge of the image. The smaller moon Mimas (396 kilometers, or 246 miles across) can be seen beyond Rhea also on the right side of the image.

Dione, Epimetheus, and Rings

Dione, Epimetheus, and Rings – Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

Just one more day until Cassini’s Grand Finale. Stay tuned for more Cassini Week celebration.

Cassini Week: Rings

In the famous words of the 21st Century philosopher, Beyoncé, “if you like it then you shoulda put a ring on it”.

In that case, the Universe must have really liked Saturn.

While all of the gas giants in our solar system have rings, Saturn’s are by far the most prominent and celebrated. And while humans have been admiring Saturn’s rings for centuries (when Galileo first discovered them, he described them as Saturn’s ears), it was Cassini that brought them into razor-sharp focus.

Shadows cast on Saturn's A ring.

Shadows cast on Saturn’s A ring. – Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute

Several sets of shadows are cast onto the A ring in this image taken about a week after Saturn’s August 2009 equinox.

Near the middle of the image, shadows are cast by vertically extended clumps in the kinky, discontinuous ringlets of the Encke Gap in the A ring. These clumps are casting shadows approximately 275 kilometers (170 miles) long, implying a clump height about 600 meters (2,000 feet) above the ring plane.

In the middle left of the image, the waves created by Daphnis (8 kilometers, 5 miles across) on the edge of the Keeler Gap cast shadows on the A ring that are about 450 kilometers (280 miles) long, indicating waves that rise about one kilometer above the ring plane. The moon itself is not visible at this resolution, but it, too, orbits in the Keeler Gap of the A ring. Daphnis has an inclined orbit, and its gravitational pull perturbs the orbits of the particles of the A ring forming the Keeler Gap’s edge and sculpts the edge into waves having both horizontal (radial) and out-of-plane components. Material on the inner edge of the gap orbits faster than the moon so that the waves there lead the moon in its orbit. Material on the outer edge moves slower than the moon, so waves there trail the moon.

The Janus 2:1 spiral density wave

The Janus 2:1 spiral density wave – Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI

This view from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft shows a wave structure in Saturn’s rings known as the Janus 2:1 spiral density wave. Resulting from the same process that creates spiral galaxies, spiral density waves in Saturn’s rings are much more tightly wound. In this case, every second wave crest is actually the same spiral arm which has encircled the entire planet multiple times.

Propeller in Saturn's A Ring

Propeller in Saturn’s A Ring – Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

NASA’s Cassini spacecraft captured these remarkable views of a propeller feature in Saturn’s A ring on Feb. 21, 2017. These are the sharpest images taken of a propeller so far, and show an unprecedented level of detail. The propeller is nicknamed “Santos-Dumont,” after the pioneering Brazilian-French aviator.

Have you heard of Saturn’s propellers before? They’re the result of a very small moon, unseen in the photo above, disturbing ring material. They offer a unique opportunity for researchers to track the orbits of unseen objects that are embedded within a disk of material.

Epimetheus and smog-enshrouded Titan, with Saturn's A and F rings stretching across the scene.

Epimetheus, Titan, and rings. – Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute

Cassini delivers this stunning vista showing small, battered Epimetheus and smog-enshrouded Titan, with Saturn’s A and F rings stretching across the scene.

Stay tuned for more, as we continue our Cassini Week celebration.

Cassini Week: Huygens Probe 

When Cassini launched in 1997, it carried with it a special payload: a probe named Huygens that would penetrate the permanent haze of Saturn’s largest moon Titan, and reveal to us the shrouded world below.

Huygens descent module and shield

Huygens descent module and shield – Credit: ESA

And what a world Titan is!

It’s larger than Mercury, approaching the diameter of Mars (Titan: 5,150 km / Mars: 6,780 km). It has an atmosphere with superrotating winds, composed of 95 nitrogen and 5% methane. And it has an abundance of massive liquid methane lakes and rivers, as well as water ice and rocks of all sizes. A truly dynamic place that can only be referred to as a world.

And we owe most of what we know about Titan thanks to Huygens and Cassini.

Four images obtained at different altitudes during Titan's descent

Four images obtained at different altitudes during Titan’s descent – Credit: ESA/NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

The probe was named after the man who discovered Titan in 1655, the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens.

Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens

After a seven year journey, Cassini entered Saturn’s orbit on July 1, 2004. On Christmas Day of that year (Spacecraft Event Time), the shelled Huygens probe separated from Cassini and began its three-week coast to Titan’s surface. Finally, on January 14, 2005, Huygens fell through Titan’s atmosphere, slowed by parachutes, for 2 hours and 27 minutes, before landing on the surface. On the way down, its suite of instruments and cameras captured priceless data about the mysterious world on which it would spend the rest of its life.

First color photo from Titan's surface

First color photo from Titan’s surface – Credit: NASA/JPL/ESA/University of Arizona

Huygens sent data back from the surface of Titan for 72 minutes, before Cassini–our relay station to the probe–dipped below the moon’s horizon. The amount of data collected and transmitted during that short time, however, was phenomenal. In addition to the breathtaking photos, Huygens provided us with unprecedented data about the alien moon, data that is still being analyzed for new discoveries to this day.

Stay tuned for more, as we continue our week of commemorating the Cassini mission on the eve of the spacecraft’s Grand Finale.

Cassini Week: Moons Mimas and Pan

This week we’re celebrating the accomplishments of the Cassini spacecraft which, in just a few days, will plunge into Saturn’s atmosphere in its Grand Finale. Today, we take a look at just two of Saturn’s more than 60 moons: Mimas and Pan.

Mimas:

When it comes to Saturn’s moon Mimas, Cassini kept delivering surprise after surprise. First, there was a fantastic image showing us, in great detail, Mimas’s remarkable Herschel crater (Voyager 1 was the first to give us images of Herschel crater, but they paled in comparison to what Cassini revealed).

Mimas, with prominent Herschel crater.

Mimas, with prominent Herschel crater. – Source: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Then again, maybe…
Obi-Wan Kenobi: "That's no moon. It's a space station."

But Cassini revealed another surprise on Mimas. When it took a look at its infrared profile and created a temperature map, we found Pac-Man.

Mimas Temperature Map

Mimas Temperature Map – Source: NASA/JPL/Goddard/SWRI/SSI

Pan:

While Mimas is quite a unique satellite of our beloved ringed planet, Pan certainly deserves some recognition as well.

Saturn's ravioli moon, Pan

Saturn’s ravioli moon, Pan – Source: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute

The above image was captured in March of 2017, as Cassini zoomed within 15,300 miles (24,600 kilometers) of Pan.

I don’t know about you, but this moon makes me hungry for a pan of ravioli.
Will Riker rolling his eyes.

Stay tuned, more Cassini action to come as we prepare for the Grand Finale.

Sunday Matinee – NASA at Saturn: Cassini’s Grand Finale

The final chapter in a remarkable mission of exploration and discovery, Cassini’s Grand Finale is in many ways like a brand new mission. Twenty-two times, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft will dive through the unexplored space between Saturn and its rings. What we learn from these ultra-close passes over the planet could be some of the most exciting revelations ever returned by the long-lived spacecraft. This animated video tells the story of Cassini’s final, daring assignment and looks back at what the mission has accomplished.


Cassini’s Grand Finale

On September 15, one of the most fruitful space missions ever imagined will come to an end. After two decades in space, Cassini’s fuel supplies are close to being depleted. To avoid contaminating one of Saturn’s moons, including a pair that could harbor life–Enceladus and Titan–the decision was made to retire Cassini into Saturn’s atmosphere. Up until contact between the orbiter and Earth is lost, Cassini will continue to study our beloved ringed planet. New insight will be gleaned from this mission that’s only made possible by Cassini’s fatal approach to the gas giant. Among the data to be collected:

  • The spacecraft will make detailed maps of Saturn’s gravity and magnetic fields, revealing how the planet is arranged internally, and possibly helping to solve the irksome mystery of just how fast Saturn is rotating.
  • The final dives will vastly improve our knowledge of how much material is in the rings, bringing us closer to understanding their origins.
  • Cassini’s particle detectors will sample icy ring particles being funneled into the atmosphere by Saturn’s magnetic field.
  • Its cameras will take amazing, ultra-close images of Saturn’s rings and clouds.

Cassini launched on Oct. 15, 1997. After a seven-year journey the orbiter arrived at Saturn, carrying the European Space Agency’s Huygens probe. In 2005, the probe successfully landed on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan.


Quick facts about Titan:

  • Titan is the solar system’s second largest moon.
  • It’s the only moon in our solar system that has cloud systems and a dense, planet-like atmosphere.
  • Titan has liquid hydrocarbon lakes, mountains, and seasonal weather patterns.

For 13 years, Cassini has orbited Saturn and provided us with fascinating information about, not just the planet, but its intricate ring system and many moons.

Cassini mission overview infographic

Cassini mission overview infographic – Click for larger version – Source: NASA/JPL

In addition to the important scientific data that was collected by Cassini, are the breathtaking images that have been collected: storms and aurorae on Saturn, detailed views of the worlds that are Saturn moons, and remarkable visions of Saturn’s sensational rings.

For the next week, we celebrate Cassini’s achievements.

Still from the short film Cassini's Grand Finale, the spacecraft is shown diving between Saturn and the planet's innermost ring.

Still from the short film Cassini’s Grand Finale, the spacecraft is shown diving between Saturn and the planet’s innermost ring. – Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

STS-1 Columbia – The Shuttle Program’s First Flight

It happened exactly 20 years after cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space. It was the first American manned spaceflight in six years, following the 1975 Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. It was the beginning of an era that ushered in a new generation of spaceflight technology.

STS-1 Mission Patch

STS-1 Mission Patch – Credit: NASA

It was STS-1, the first of more than 130 flights of the Space Shuttle program.

Shuttle Columbia was selected for the maiden voyage of the program. Not only was this the first crewed flight for the shuttle, it was the first flight period. Shuttle Enterprise had been utilized for flight (and landing) tests within the atmosphere, but wasn’t designed to be space-ready (including not having a heat shield for re-entry).

So Columbia was not only a mission, but a flight test in its own right. Her crew consisted of Commander John W. Young and pilot Robert L. Crippen. Young was already a veteran of the space program, having flown as pilot of the Gemini Program’s first manned flight (Gemini 3 – known around these parts as that time John Young smuggled a corned beef sandwich into space), served as commander of Gemini 10, was the command module pilot of Apollo 10 (the “dress rehearsal” for Apollo 11), and also walked on the Moon as commander of Apollo 16. This, however, would be Crippen’s first spaceflight. Both of these men were qualified test pilots, and STS-1 was one heck of a test flight.

At 7:00am on April 12, 1981, after a two-day delay, STS-1 lifted off from Launch Pad 39A at Kennedy Space Center–the same launch pad that took Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins to the Moon, and is currently leased to SpaceX where it will serve to create a new type of spaceflight history. The launch was just as flawless as Launch Controller Chuck Hannon wished, when one minute and forty-five seconds prior to lift-off, he told the crew: “Smooth sailing, baby.”

STS-1 Columbia at launch on April 12, 1981

STS-1 Columbia at launch on April 12, 1981 – Credit: NASA

SHUTTLE LAUNCH CONTROL: T minus ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, we’ve gone for main engine start, we have main engine start. And we have lift off of America’s first space shuttle, and the shuttle has cleared the tower.

Minutes later, Columbia and her crew were beginning the first of 37 total orbits to take place over the course of just more than two days. A new era was born, as we became a world with reusable space planes.




The primary mission of STS-1 was to conduct a general check-out of the Space Shuttle system, reach orbit successfully, and land safely back on Earth. Despite a few anomalies, which were recorded and solved for future flights, STS-1 was a smashing success. Orbiter Columbia performed amazingly and would be used for the next four shuttle missions until STS-6, when Challenger became the second orbiter in the fleet.

STS-1 was the solid first step in the three decades-long adventure that was the Space Shuttle program.