On June 2nd, 2003, a Soyuz rocket with a Fregat upper stage blasted off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, in Kazakhstan. The rocket carried the European Space Agency’s Mars Express mission instruments on an exciting journey to Mars. After spending less than a couple hours in a 200km (124 mile) parking orbit around Earth, the Fregat fired again, propelling the spacecraft towards a Mars transfer orbit. After three minutes, Mars Express separated from the Fregat and began its sixth month trek to the red planet.1
Mars Express consisted of two main components: the Mars Express orbiter and the Beagle 2 lander. The two components were to separate, with the former continuing to orbit, map and study the planet and the latter to drop into the thin Martian atmosphere, land, and conduct research from the surface. On Christmas morning in 2003, Beagle 2 dropped onto Mars’s surface and was never heard from again. Many attempts were made to communicate with the lander, but no response was forthcoming. By February 2004, with no communications received from the Beagle, it was officially declared lost. The Mars Express orbiter, however, was a success and has been capturing important data and wonderful images of Mars for over a decade now.
Fast forward twelve years to the end of 2014. Michael Croon, a former member of the Mars Express team, and other colleagues continue to sift through images produced by the HiRISE camera that’s aboard NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Croon had requested images of the planned landing area through HiWish, a public suggestion page for HiRISE targets. Against any likely odds, Croon spotted something on the edge of the frame in one of the images he acquired. The contrast was low in the initial image and he wasn’t convinced his candidate was anything special. He requested additional imagery from the same location. In the new images, his candidate was a bright spot that appeared to move slightly between images. This was suggestive of being consistent with sunlight reflecting off of various parts of the Beagle 2. Some careful image clean-up work conducted by the HiRISE team provided even clearer views of the object in question, all but confirming that the Beagle 2 was finally found.
Subsequent discussion and analysis of the images suggests that the Beagle 2 only partially deployed its petal-like solar panels. The communications antenna would only have been revealed after a full deployment, thus the suspected reason why Beagle 2 never sent a message confirming it’s landing.
While it’s still a mystery as to the cause of the lander failing to deploy completely after landing, it is much relief to the team members that have spent the past 12 years wondering what had ever become of their precious lander.
- The Fregat coasted off into interplanetary space. ↩